During the project research work, several precursors materialized in intermediate results have been obtained, as follows:
- 4 Documentary studies regarding:
- synthesis routes for yielding biodegradable water dispersible co-polyesters from PET wastes;
- utilization of these co-polyesters as coating materials for fertilizers;
- co-polyesters water dispersability;
- micro-organisms involved in polyesters biodegradation,
Integrated documentary study
used for experimental models design.
- 4 Experimental models materialized in developing:
10 Laboratory scale methods
- synthesis of biodegradable, water-dispersible co-polyesters from PET wastes;
- preparation of co-polyesters aqueous dispersions;
- conditioning of NPK fertilizer granules by means of coating with biodegradable co-polyester film, generated from water dispersions in order to yield slow release nutrients;
- testing in greenhouse the nitrogen release kinetics from fertilizer granules coated with co-polyester film, establishing the connections between autotrofic micro-organisms (bacteria and fungi) and the polyesters introduced into the soil.
- 6 Synthesis procedures enabled the elaboration of:
3 Laboratory scale technologies
- synthesis of biodegradable, water-dispersible co-polyesters from PET wastes;
- preparation of biodegradable co-polyesters water dispersions.
- 7 Testing procedures resulting in
2 Experimentation reports
- characterization of laboratory synthesized co polyesters;
- characterization of aqueous co-polyester dispersions;
- testing the co-polyester degradability and effect upon the magnitude and structure of heterotrophic micro-organisms communities in soil (toxicology);
- preparation of co-polyester coated slow-release fertilizers;
- testing the complex mineral slow-release fertilizers behaviour on soil chemical parameters.
These precursors and intermediate results enabled us to select an optimum laboratory procedure for the synthesis of biodegradable, water-dispersible co-polyesters from PET wastes, and to accomplish
The laboratory scale improved technology.
The FINAL RESULTS of the project are:
- 1 pilot scale tehnology:
» PILOT SCALE TECHNOLOGY FOR MANUFACTURE OF BIODEGRADABLE COATING MATERIALS FROM WATER DISPERSIBLE CO-POLYESTERS OBTAINED BY CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF PET WASTES.
The synthesis process of the biodegradable, water-dispersible co-polyesters is a melt trans-esterification-poly-condensation process, which includes the degradative trans-esterification of PET wastes, used as raw materials.
- reducing the raw materials supply (especially those derived from oil) by using an significant amount of plastic waste
(about 60 % of the final composition of the co-polyester) and a renewable resource
(about 10 % of the final composition of the co-polyester);
- improving the synthesis process yield by maximization of isosorbide-derived structural units incorporation into the polymer backbone, leading to loss diminution;
- reaction time decrease due to several chemical processes simultaneously occuring;
- preparation of tailored co-polyesters which display certain designed properties, interconnected and, in the same time, in opposition, according to the application field;
- simplification of the aqueous dispersion preparation process, allowed by the chemical structure and physico-chemical properties of the co-polyester itself.
- 2 pilot products:
» BIODEGRADABLE CO-POLYESTER, FILM-FORMING FROM WATER DISPERSION - BIOCOPET
The product is an aromatic-aliphatic biodegradable, water dispersible co-polyester, obtained by chemical recycling of PET wastes, including, along the backbone, glycolic units derived from biomass.
Granules of fertilizer coated with co-polyester film
- good flexibility and mechanical strength of the film;
- allows slow release of the nutrients from the coated fertilizers by gradual biodegradation of the film;
- induces low levigability to the encapsulated fertilizers.
» ENCAPSULATION SYSTEM FOR SLOW RELEASE FERTILIZERS - BIOCOPET D
The product is a stable, co-solvents, amines and surfactants free water dispersion 35 % wt. of the aromatic-aliphatic biodegradable co-polyester BIOCOPET.
Co-polyester water dispersion
- non-toxic or irritant;
- low viscosity;
- film forming by water evaporation.
PATENT: Application OSIM no. A/01088/ 11.11.2010
Title: "Aromatic-aliphatic, biodegradable, water dispersible co-polyester, preparation procedure and water dispersion thereof"
Inventors: Stela IANCU, Monica DULDNER, Anca-Rovena LACATUSU, Emeric BARTHA, Dan-Florin ANGHEL
Articles in ISI quoted journals:
Cornelia ILIE, Stela IANCU, Monica DULDNER, Dan-Florin ANGHEL, "WATER-DISPERSIBLE, BIODEGRADABLE COPOLYESTERS FROM PET WASTES. I.INVESTIGATION OF HYDROPHYLIC CHARACTER", Rev. Roumaine Chim. (on publish - sept. 2010).
Cornelia ILIE, Dan-Florin ANGHEL, Marieta BALCAN, Georgeta STANGA, Adriana BARAN, "THE BEHAVIOR OF CARBOPOL 980 IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF NONIONIC SURFACTANTS. II.EVIDENCE OF COMPLEX FORMATION BY ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, STEADY-STATE FLUORESCENCE, DYE-SOLUBILIZATION AND TURBIDITY MEASUREMENTS", Revue Roumaine de Chimie, 55(6), 2010, 341-347.
Cornelia ILIE, Dan-Florin ANGHEl, Georgeta STANGA, Alexandru IOVESCU, Violeta PURCAR, "THE INFLUENCE OF NONIONIC SURFACTANTS ON THE CARBOPOL-PEG INTERPOLYMER COMPLEXES", Revue Roumaine de Chimie, 55(7), 2010, 409-417.
Emeric BARTHA, Stela IANCU, Monica DULDNER, Mircea D. VULUGA, Constantin DRAGHICI, Florina TEODORESCU, Dragos GHERASE, "GLYCOLYSIS OF PET WASTES WITH ISOSORBIDE: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROXY OLIGOESTERS", Revista de Chimie (on publish - nov. 2010).
Emeric BARTHA, Cornelia UNCUTA, Dragos GHERASE, Florina TEODORESCU, Constantin DRAGHICI,
"CONFORMATIONAL EQUILIBRIA OF TADDOL-S IN SOLUTION INVESTIGATED BY VIBRATIONAL CIRCULAR DICHROISM", Chirality, 22, 2010, E115-E122.
Articles published in non ISI journals:
Anca Rovena LACATUSU, Radu LACATUSU, Stela IANCU, Monica DULDNER, "THE EFFECT OF COMPLEX MINERAL FERTILIZERS COATED WITH CO-POLYESTER FILMS FROM PET WASTE RECYCLING ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES", Communication at the 15th World Fertilizers Congress of the International Scientific Center for Fertilizers (CIEC) 29.aug.2010-2.sept.2010 (to be published in extenso under Publishing House of Romanian Academy).
Anca Rovena LACATUSU, Radu LACATUSU, Mihail DUMITRU, Adriana LUNGU, "ROLE OF MINERAL FERTILIZATION IN ACCELERATING THE BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS OF A SOIL POLLUTED WITH CRUDE OIL", Research Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 41 (2), 2009, 127-137, ISSN 2066-1843 (Quotation B+).
Communications at International Conferences and Symposia:
Stela IANCU, Monica DULDNER, Emeric BARTHA, Maria MAGANU, Loredana BARBU, "SYNTHESIS OF SOME BIODEGRADABLE, WATER DISPERSIBLE, FILM-FORMING CO-POLYESTERS FROM PET WASTES AND DIOLS DERIVED FROM BIOMASS", 2-nd EUCHEMS CHEMISTRY CONGRESS, Torino, Italy, 16-19 september 2008.
Cornelia ILIE, Stela IANCU, Monica DULDNER, Dan-Florin ANGHEL Sandu PERETZ, Adriana BARAN, Gabriela STINGA, Monica MAXIM, Marieta BALCAN, Alina IOVESCU, Teodora STAICU, Marian MICUT, "COPOLYESTER AQUEOUS DISPERSIONS BASED ON CHEMICAL RECYCLED PET BOTTLE WASTES FOR COATING APPLICATIONS", IX-eme Colloque Franco-Roumain sur les Polymeres, Alba Iulia, Romania, 27–29 August 2009.
Stela IANCU, Monica DUDNER, Emeric BARTHA, Cristian NICOLAE, Dragos GHERASE, Florina
TEODORESCU, Sorina GAREA, "BIODEGRADABLE COPOLYESTERS FROM PET WASTES AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES", International Symposium PRIORITIES OF CHEMISTRY FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - PRIOCHEM, Vth ed. - Sinaia, Romania, 28-30 October 2009.
Anca-Rovena LACATUSU, Stela IANCU, Monica DULDNER, Radu LACATUSU, Mihail DUMITRU, Mihaela LUNGU, Claudia BALACEANU, Rodica LAZAR, Amelia ANGHEL, Andrei VRINCEANU, "CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF SOIL TREATED WITH COMPLEX MINERAL FERTILIZERS, COATED BY CO-POLYESTER FILMS OBTAINED FROM CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF PET WASTES", International Symposium "The Environment and Sustainable Development", Iasi, Romania, 16-18 October 2009.
Anca-Rovena LACATUSU , Radu LACATUSU, Stela IANCU, Monica DULDNER, "THE EFFECT OF COMPLEX MINERAL FERTILIZERS COATED WITH CO-POLYESTER FILMS FROM PET WASTE RECYCLING ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES", the 15th World Fertilizers Congress of the International Scientific Center for Fertilizers (CIEC), Bucharest, Romania, 29 August-2 September 2010.
Emeric BARTHA, Stela IANCU, Monica DULDNER, Loredana BARBU, Maria MAGANU, "GLYCOLYSIS OF PET WASTES WITH ISOSORBIDE: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROXY OLIGOESTERS", International Conference of the Chemical Societies of the South-Eastern European Countries, Bucharest, Romania, 15-17 September 2010.